from the Free Internet Encyclopedia
The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the original French settlers of parts of the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. Although Acadians and Quebecers are both French-Canadian, Acadia was founded four years prior to the founding of Quebec and in a geographically separate area. Furthermore, Acadians to a great extent hail from different parts of France than do Quebeckers. Consequently, the two cultures are distinct.
In the expulsion of 1755, Acadians were uprooted by the British; many later resettled in Louisiana, where they became known as Cajuns.
Main article: History of the Acadians
In 1603 Henry IV, the King of France, granted Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, the right to colonize lands in North America between 40º- 60º North latitude. Arriving in 1604, the French settlers built a fort at the mouth of the St. Croix River which separates present day New Brunswick and Maine, on a small island named Île-Ste-Croix. The following spring, the settlers sailed across the bay to Port-Royal (Annapolis Royal) in present day Nova Scotia.
During the 17th century, about one hundred French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the aboriginal Mi'kmaq, learning their hunting and fishing techniques. The Acadians lived mainly in the coastal regions, farming land reclaimed from the sea through diking. Living on the frontier between French and British territories, the Acadians found themselves on the frontlines in each conflict between the powers. Acadia was passed repeatedly from one side to the other, and the Acadians learned to survive through an attitude of studied neutrality, refusing to take up arms for either side, and thus came to be referred to as the "French neutrals."
In the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, France ceded that portion of Acadia which is now Nova Scotia (minus Cape Breton Island) to the British for the last time. In 1754, the British government, no longer accepting the neutrality previously granted to the Acadians, demanded that they take an absolute oath of allegiance to the British monarch, which would require taking up arms. The Acadians did not want to take up arms against family members who were in French territory, and believed that the oath would compromise their Roman Catholic faith, and refused. Colonel Charles Lawrence ordered the mass ethnic cleansing of the Acadians, without authority from London and despite earlier cautions from British authorities against drastic action.
Deportation of the Acadians
In what is known as the Great Expulsion (Grand Dérangement), more than 12,000 Acadians (three-fourths of the Acadian population in Nova Scotia) were expelled, their homes burned and their lands confiscated. Families were split up, and the Acadians were dispersed throughout the British lands in North America; some were returned to France.
In 2003, at the request of Acadian representatives, a proclamation was issued in the name of Queen Elizabeth II, acting as the Canadian monarch, officially acknowledging the deportation and establishing July 28 as a day of commemoration. The day of commemoration is observed by the Government of Canada, as the successor of the British Government.
The Acadians today predominantly inhabit the northern and eastern shores of New Brunswick. Other groups of Acadians can be found in the Magdalen Islands and throughout other parts of Quebec, in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia such as Chéticamp and Clare. Still others can be found in the southern and western regions of New Brunswick and in New England. Many of these latter communities have faced varying degrees of assimilation. For many families in predominantly anglophone communities, French language attrition has occurred, particularly in younger generations. The Acadians who settled in Louisiana after 1764, known as Cajuns, have had a dominant cultural influence in many parishes, particularly in the southwestern area of Louisiana known as Acadiana.
Today Acadians are a vibrant minority, particularly in New Brunswick and Louisiana (Cajuns). Since 1994, Le Congrès Mondial Acadien has united Acadians of the Maritimes, New England, and Louisiana.
Notable Acadians in the Maritimes include singers Angèle Arsenault and Edith Butler, writer Antonine Maillet, boxer Yvon Durelle, pitcher Rheal Cormier, former Governor General Roméo LeBlanc, former premier of Prince Edward Island Aubin-Edmond Arsenault, the first Acadian premier of any province and the first Acadian appointed to a provincial supreme court, his father, Joseph-Octave Arsenault, the first Acadian appointed to the Canadian Senate, and former New Brunswick premier Louis Robichaud, who was responsible for modernizing education and the government of New Brunswick in the mid-20th century.
August 15, the feast of the Assumption, is the national feast day of the Acadians. The national anthem of the Acadians is "Ave, maris stella". On that day, the Acadians celebrate by having the tintamarre which consists mainly of a big parade where people can dress up with the colours of Acadia and make a lot of noise.
The flag of the Acadians is the French tricolour with a golden star in the black field, which symbolizes the Our Lady of the Assumption, patron saint of the Acadians and the "Star of the Sea". This flag was adopted in 1884 at the Acadian National Congress in Miscouche, PEI.
Acadians in the diaspora have adopted other symbols. The flag of Acadians in Louisiana, known as Cajuns, was designed by Thomas J. Arceneaux of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and adopted by the Louisiana legislature as the official emblem of the Acadiana region in 1974. A group of New England Acadians attending Le Congrès Mondial Acadien in Nova Scotia in 2004, endorsed a design for a New England Acadian flag by William Cork, and are advocating for its wider acceptance.
Flags of Acadiana region of Louisiana and the New England Acadians
Acadians speak a dialect of French called Acadian French. Many of those in the Moncton area speak Chiac and English. The Louisiana Cajun descendants mostly speak English but many still speak Cajun French.
There were three stages involved in the deportation and resettlement of our Acadian ancestors.
1. The British, 1755 to 1757, hauled them to other English colonies or to England where many entire families, including ours, were imprisoned at Liverpool. Which is how grandmother Marie Josephe [LeBlanc] Richard, wife of Pierre II, who was born in Acadia ended up dying in Liverpool, England.
2. About 1763 and thereafter, the English deported the imprisoned Acadians to France where they settled in places near to the port of Nantes, including Belle-Ile-en-mer.
3. Some of the repatriated Acadians left France for a new life in then Spanish Louisiana. Spain actively recruited them to be a buffer between Spanish and British interests in north America.
Below are some details of these tribulations.
http://www.acadian.org/census1751.html List of refugees at Les Planches Pierre RICHARD, widower with 5 children Pierre RICHARD, fils, his wife and 1 child List of refugees at Riviere de Mecan Michel RICHARD, his wife and 11 children Joseph RICHARD, his wife and 7 children Pierre RICHARD, his wife and 5 children Jean RICHARD, his wife and 5 children List of refugees at Beausejour and surrounding areas Menoudy Pierre FOREST, his wife and 5 children [his wife = Marie Madeline Richard, dau Pierre Richard]
The referenced web site is in French but easy to comprehend. It lists ships by name and date with the passenger manifest for each. The page heading look like this "Rolle des acadiens embarqués à Southampton à bord de le corvette du Roi l'Ambition. Capitaine Brunau De la Salle Le 16 Mai" which says List of Acadians embarked from Southampton [England] on the King's Corvette L'Ambition, Captain Bruno de La Salle on 16th of May [known to be in 1763]. Our families' names extracted and shown below.
1 2 Charles Richard Joseph Richard Anne Richard La Blanche Richard Joseph Richard Joseph Aman Richard Geneviève Richard Marguerite Richard Marain Richard 6 Suzanne Richard Pierre Richard Marie La Blanche Richard La Blanche Richard Cécile Richard mère 24 Cécile Richard fille Jean Richard Pierre Richard 32 Rose Richard Jean Richard Marguerite Richard Marguerite Richard Marie Richard Joseph Richard Madeleine ClemenceauRolle des familles Acadiennes embarquées à Falmouth le 26 mai 1763 à bord de la flute du roi La Fauvette commandée par le Sieur Gourau
3 14 Basile Richard Françoise Tériaut Marie Richard Marie Richard Joseph Richard Marguerite Richard Joseph Richard Isabelle Richard Charles Richard Anne RichardRolle des familles acadiennes détenues à Liverpool et embarquées à bord de la gabarre du Roi l'Esturgeon, commandée par le Sieur Louis Belon le 7 Juin 1763.
23 Pierre Richard Joseph Ignace Richard Jean Charles Richard Catherine Richard Brigitte Richard Simon Richard
Quote: "In 1785, Spain paid for 7 ships to transport Acadians to settle in Louisiana. For Spain, it meant settlers to buffer the zone between Spanish land and the British land. For the Acadians, it meant a chance to join their fellow Acadians and to regain some of what they lost during the Exile."
The seven ships which sailed from France to Louisiana were:
Le Bon Papa - from May 10, 1785 to July 29, 1785 - 80 days at sea;
La Bergere - from May 14, 1785 to August 15, 1785 - 93 days at sea;
Le Beaumont - from June 11, 1785 to August 19, 1785 - 69 days at sea;
Le Saint-Remi - from June 27, 1785 to September 10, 1785 - 75 days at sea;
L'Amitie - from August 20, 1785 to November 8, 1785 - 80 days at sea;
La Ville d'Archangel - from August 12, 1785 to December 3, 1785 - 113 days at sea;
La Caroline - from October 19, 1785 to December 17, 1785 - 54 days at sea.
[Personally, I am unable to imagine being cooped up in a wood sailing vessel with dozens of people, for three months or more of tossing about on the ocean! The passenger lists are long and include many names we know well in Louisiana today. Only those in our ancestral line have been extracted. Visit the hosting web site acadian-cajun.com for a lot more information.]
Le Bon Papa Pierre RICHARD, plowman - 48 Blanche LEBLANC, wife - 46 Marie RICHARD, daughter - 19 Pierre RICHARD, son - 16 Rose RICHARD, cousin - 30 Jean RICHARD, plowman - 49 Marguerite LANDRY, wife - 48 Jean Pierre RICHARD, son - 14 Marie Josephe RICHARD, widow of Hilaire LANDRY - 46 Marie Magdelaine LANDRY, daughter - 16 Rose LANDRY, daughter - 10
http://collections.ic.gc.ca/acadian/english/eacorg/acorg.htm (extensive additional history)
Université Sainte-Anne, Church Point, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Extracted from The Acadian Odyssey at Centre Acadien
ACADIA - Origins of the Name
The first known European to coin the term Acadia or Arcadia was Giovanni da Verrazzano( 1485 - 1528 ). The name came to him from one of two possible sources. One would be his meetings with a native who used the word "quoddy" or "cadie" to describe what Verrazzano understood to be the territory surrounding them. The second possible origin of the word would be from Greek or Roman classics, where the word Arcadia is used to describe a pastoral paradise. Verrazzano, impressed with the beauty of his surroundings, may have recalled the name from these works.
During the next decades, Acadia was the name given to the land that stretched from present-day New Jersey to Nova Scotia. The name Larcadia first appeared on a 1548 map by Giacomo Gastaldi. He located it near what is now Cape Cod in Massachusetts. It later appears on a 1566 map by the Italian cartographer Bolognino Zalttieri. He placed it where Nova Scotia is today, seven decades before the French began settling there. In 1575, the French historian Andr? Thevet changed the name to Arcadie.
According to Bona Arsenault and Geneviève Massignon, most of the ancestors of Acadian families had already arrived before the beginning of the 18th century.
The Centre Acadien invites you to get acquainted with the first arrivals of the families cited below as well as the heraldry of these families. As far as is possible, we supply some information regarding some members of these families who were deported, where they were deported to and even in some cases the names of ships that either took them into exile or brought them back. Finally, it will certainly be of interest to many to see the different spelling variations of several of these family names.
The Centre Acadien of Université Sainte-Anne located in Church Point Nova Scotia is an ideal facility for those who are interested in genealogy. Numerous individuals visit the Centre to request a genealogical search about their ancestors. The Centre Acadien also offers the possibility of doing one's own research.
A·ca·di·a (?-ka'de-?) pronunciation
A region and former French colony of eastern Canada, chiefly in Nova Scotia but also including New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and the coastal area from the St. Lawrence River south into Maine. During the French and Indian War (1755–1763) many Acadians migrated or were deported by the British to southern territories, including Louisiana, where their descendants came to be known as Cajuns.
Acadian family names
The Deportation Order, by Claude T. Picard
Little physical evidence remains of pre-expulsion Acadia. Most of the family names of the Acadian settlers are known from historical documents, and many of those family lines continue today. Acadian names also survive in Louisiana, France, and Quebec, a legacy of the Acadian deportation and subsequent migrations.
This list of about 300 family names was drawn from parish records, census records and other documents from Acadia/Nova Scotia in the first half of the 18th century. All Acadian civilian families known to have lived in the colony between 1700 and 1755 are included. This list does not include the families of the French garrison serving in Acadia.
Abbadie, de Saint Castin d', Allain, Amirault dit Tourangeau, Angou dit Choisy, Apart, Arcement, Arosteguy, Arseneau, Arnaud, Aubois, Aucoin, Ayot
Babin, Babineau dit Deslauriers, Barillot, Barolet, Bastarache dit (Le) Basque, Bastien, Belliveau dit Bideau, Belliveau dit Blondin, Belou, Benoit dit Labrière, Bergereau, Bergeron d'Ambroise, Bergeron dit Nantes, Bergeron dit Machefer, Benard, Bertaud dit Montaury, Bertrand, Bézier dit Touin dit Larivère, Blanchard, Blanchard dit Gentilhomme, Bodard, Boisseau dit Blondin, Bonnevie dit Beaumont, Bonnière, Borel, Boucher dit Desroches, Boudrot, Bourg, Bourgeois, Boutin, Brassaud, Brasseur dit Mathieu, Breau, Broussard, Brun, Bugaret, Buisson, Bugeaud, Buote, Buteau
Cahouet, Caissy dit Roger, Calvè dit Laforge, Carré, Caylan, Célestin dit Bellemère, Cellier dit Normand, Chauvet, Chênet dit Dubreuil, Chesnay dit Lagarenne, Chiasson dit La Valée, Chouteau dit Manseau, Clémenceau, Cloistre, Coignac, Comeau, Cormier dit Rossignol, Cormier dit Thierry, Corne, Corporon, Cosset, Coste, Cottard, Cousin, Crépaux, Creysac dit Toulouse, Cyr
Daigre, D'Amours de Chauffours, D'Amours de Clignancour, D'Amours de Freneuse, D'Amours de Louvière, D'Amours de Plaine, Daniel, Darois, David dit Pontif, Delisle, Denis, Denys de Fronsac, Derayer, Deschamps dit Cloche, Desgoutins, Desmoillons, Deprés, Deveau dit Dauphiné, Dingle, Doiron, Dominé dit Saint-Sauveur, Doucet dit Laverdure, Doucet dit Lirlandois, Doucet dit Mayard, Druce, Dubois, Dubois dit Dumont, Dufaut, Dugas, Duguay, Duon dit Lyonnais, Duplessis, Dupuis,
Flan, Fontaine dit Beaulieu, Forest, Forton, Fougère, Fournier, Froiquingont,
Gadrau, Galerne, Gallé, Garceau dit Boutin, Garceau dit Richard, Garceau dit Tranchemontagne, Gareau, Gaudet, Gauterot, Gauthier, Gentil, Giboire Duvergé dit Lamotte, Girouard, Gisé dit Desrosiers, Godin dit Beauséjour, Godin dit Bellefeuille, Godin dit Bellefontaine, Godin dit Boisjoli, Godin dit Catalogne, Godin dit Châtillon, Godin dit Lincour, Godin dit Préville, Godin dit Valcour, Gosselin, Gourdeau, Gousman, Gouzille, Grandmaison (Terriot dit Guillot dit), Granger, Gravois, Grosvalet, Guédry dit Grivois, Guédry dit Labine, Guédry dit Labrador, Guédry dit Laverdure, Guéguen, Guénard, Guérin, Guérin dit Laforge, Guilbeau, Guillot dit Langevin, Guy dit Tintamarre, Guyon,
Haché dit Gallant, Hamel, Hamet, Hamon, Hébert dit Manuel, Hélys dit Nouvelle, Henry dit Robert, Hensaule, Héon, Heusé, Hugon,
La Barre, Labat, dit Le Marquis, de La Bauve, La Chaume, la Croix, La Lande dit Bonappetit, Lambert, Lambourt, Landron, Landry, Langlois, Lanoue, La Pierre dit La Roche, La Vache, Lavergne, La Vigne, Lebert dit Jolycoeur, Le Blanc, Le Blanc dit Jasmin, Le Borgne de Belisle, Le Clerc dit Laverdure, Lecul, Léger dit La Rozette, Le Jeune dit Briard, Le Juge, Le Marquis dit Clermont, Le Mire, Le Neuf de Beaubassin, Le Neuf de Boisneuf, Le Neuf de La Vallière L'Enfant, Le Poupet de Saint-Aubin, Le Prieur dit Dubois, Le Prince, Leroy, L'Eschevin dit Billy, Le Vanier dit Langevin, Lavasseur dit Chamberlange, Levron dit Nantois, Loiseau, Long, Longuepée, Loppinot, Lord dit La Montagne, Lucas,
Maffier, Maillet, Maisonnat dit Baptiste, Malboeuf, Manet, Mangeant dit Saint-Germain, Marcadet, Marchand dit Poitiers, Marres dit La Sonde, Martel, Martin, Martin dit Barnabé, Massé, Massié, Mathieu, Maucaire, Mazerolle dit Saint-Louis, Melanson dit Laverdure, Melanson dit La Ramée, Mercier dit Caudebec, Messaguay, Meunier, Michel dit La Ruine, Migneau dit Aubin, Mignier dit Lagassé, Mirande, Mius d'Azit Mius d'entremont de Plemarais, Mius d'entremont de Pobomcoup, Monmellian dit Saint Germain, Mordant, Morin dit Boucher, Morpain, Moulaison dit Rencontre, Mouton, Moyse dit Latreille, Naquin dit L'Etoile,
Olivier, Onel(O'Neale), Orillon dit Champagne Oudy, Ozelet,
Part dit Laforest, Pellerin, Petitot dit Saint-Sceine, Petitpas, Pichot, Picot, Pincer, Pinet, Pitre dit Marc, Poirier, Poitevin dit Cadieux, Poitevin dit Parisien, Poitier, Porlier, Poujet dit Lapierre, Poupart, Préjean dit Le Breton, Prétieux, Pugnant dit Destouches,
Racois dit Desrosiers, Raymond, Renaud dit Provençal,
Richard, Richard dit Sansoucy, Richard dit Beaupré, Richard dit Boutin, Richard dit Lafont, Rimbeau, Rivet, Robichaud dit Cadet, Robichaud dit Niganne, Robichaud dit Prudent, Rodohan, Rodrique dit de Fonds, Rousse dit Languedoc, Roy dit La Liberté, Rullier,
Saindon, Saint-Etienne de la Tour, de Saint-Julien, de La Chaussée, de Samson, Saulnier dit Lacouline, Sauvage dit Forgeron, Sauvage dit Chrystophe, Savary, Savoie, Semer Serreau de Saint-Aubin, Sicot, Simon dit Boucher, Soulard, Soulevant, Surette,
Tandau, Terriot, Testard dit Paris, Thébeau, Thibault, Thibodeau, Tillard, Tourneur, Toussaint dit La jeunesse, Trahan, Triel dit La Perrière, Turcot, Turpin dit La Giroflée,
Vallois, Vescot, Viger, Vigneau dit Maurice, Villatte, Vincent dit Clément, Voyer
These names are reproduced from "Acadian Family Names of the 18th Century" wall poster, published by Parks Canada and La Société du Monument Lefebvre Inc.
CBC Map of Acadian Origins
Map of Acadian Settlement in Nova Scotia 1605
Map of Acadian Expulsion 1755
Map of Acadian Resettlement 1764
see also http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/acadians/
INDEPTH: ACADIANS CBC News Online | December 10, 2003
[ at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com - link was valid in July 2007 ]
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